Notes for the first Year D.T.Ed. students … … UNIT – 3 : LISTENING & SPEAKING
Language is a powerful tool. A language is best learned through language use.‘ Speech is primary in learning a language. The skill of listening is essential to speak a language. Listening is a receptive skill where as speaking is a productive skill. There are three basic stages in listening. They are: Learning
A good listener can become an effective & successful communicator.
Tips for effective Listening:
- Assimilate and process information
- Be attentive
- Eye contact
- Focus on content
- Listening completely
- Avoid emotional involvement
- Avoid distraction
Listening with understanding is the foremost important skill in learning the target language. The children should be provided more exposure to listening to the target language. More listening experiences help the learners to learn the language easily with fluency. This can be practiced by tasks given in the classroom like ’Fill in the box with instructions, listen and find, do it quickly, Recognition.
Sounds, and ‘Draw what I say’ etc., and Listen and Respond etc.,
Language learning is nothing but listening to sounds recognizing and repeating it. In the target language, there are 26 letters representing 44 sounds. Among 26 alphabets of English, five are vowels and 21 consonants. In the 44 sounds of English, 20 are vowels and 24 are consonants. The 44 sounds of English are symbols written within slashes.
Consonant sounds: The consonant sounds include plosives, fricatives, affricates, lateral, a frictionless continuant, nasal sounds and semi-vowels.
Define plosives: / p / / b /
/ t / / d /
/ k / / g /
The plosives occur in initial, medial and final position.
pit , apple , tip
bit , rabbit , lab
For complete notes in pdf version click the title below:
Teaching English Observation Record format – 2010
kindly click over the title below for pdf file annexed.
English is the most wide spread spoken language in the world.
It is used as a second language in many countries.
It is used as a link language.It is also known as “International language. A country like India can’t avoid English .Non-Hindi speaking states communicate with the centre in English in our country.
USES OF ENGLISH
English is used for news & information.
It is used for business, diplomacy and professions.
It is also used for entertainment.
It is also used as a neutral language in many parts of our globe.
It is used for updating knowledge and carrier choices.
It is used in the international schools in India.
ENGLISH FOR NEWS AND INFORMATION
English is commonly used as a medium for the communication of information and news. Telex messages and telegrams are sent in English. Satellite communication is carried in English. Computer data are processed and stored in English. Many news papers around the world are published in English .In many countries English is used as a second language. Television news is broadcast in English .In maritime communication, internal Air Traffic, International Air Traffic English is used.
ENGLISH FOR BUSINESS,DIPLOMACY AND THE PROFESSIONS
English is a major language of international business, diplomacy, science and the professions. Businessmen use English for correspondence within India. English serves as a link language to maintain good relationship between states in India. Likewise, English is used as a link language for communication among different nations. It is used in the internaional organisations like U.N..O, W.H.O, U.N.E.S.C.O.etc., English is used as a trade language among nations. It is the language of all state governments and central government in our country.
India is a multi-linguistic country. we accept English as a common national language. English is a gateway to higher education especially in the field of science.English is used in research in higher education . So it is called a library language.
ENGLISH FOR ENTERTAINMENT
The popular culture of America & Britian attract people in many parts of the world. The music ,songs of these two countries are world famous .English movies are seen in all countries. The influences of this popular culture made English very famous. English plays a vital role for international travel. English is spoken in Hotels, Airports, Tourist frequent. T.V news is available in English. Tours are always available in English.
English is used in call centers, medical script transcription, data transfer centers, digital publishing houses and human resources personal departments. People are selected to work here from multi national companies use English for communication. The latest knowledge on various subjects are available in the websites in English only
OTHER USES OF ENGLISH
English is still used in all governments in India.English is widely used in Hong-Kong,Malaysia,Singapore as a neutral language. People who speak English have a status in the society.English is taught in schools .It is necessary for careers.
INTERNATIONAL SCHOOLS IN INDIA
In India we have international schools. Asian parents enroll their children with much interest. There are thousands of international children studying in these schools in India .More than 100 international schools in our country with international Baccalaureate (IB) or IGCSE have syllabus from Cambridge university like the various international schools in the west. It is recognized world wide. New generation international schools have modern infrastructure .
POSITION OF ENGLISH IN INDIA
In the twenty first century English began to play an important role. Due to industrialsation, modernisation, liberalisation & globaisation ,English became the language of the world. English helps to sell the products of companies. So,for economic prosperity English is the key. People from middle and upper classes expect their children to stay in English medium schools.People from lower classes also wish the same. As a result ,the state governments and the central governments have opened many English medium schools. Finally, the condition of English and the mother-tongue too equally became bad. This had complicated the problem further.
SOCIAL FACTORS PROMOTING ENGLISH IN SCHOOLS
Peope give more priority to English medium schools for their children. As a result, many private schools have sprung in many parts of our country.To fulfill to the needs of the public , government has opened many English medium schools. Besides plenty of English language labs have been opened. Regional Institute of Education, Mysore bring up plenty of English VCD’s and ETV studio of DTERT contributes much for the promotion of English. This wil enable children to listen to good English. Computer based learning centers of SSA also provide excellent opportunities to the government school children.
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AND ENGLISH SPEAKING
The advent of TV & computers along with the devlopment of the international communication, English become the world language .Possibilities to learn English have increased .Many linguists, educationists and English teachers have devoted much time to improve the skill of learning. Social factors and teachers also influence learning. The teaching methods and techniques have failed to deliver the goods. After the study of learner’s psychology it is found out that every individual learner is different from each other.
IMPORTANT PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN SPOKEN ENGLISH TEACHING AND LEARNING
Language is a tool of communication The aim of learning English is to cultivate the students’ ability in four skills .They are
According to Huang x and M.Van Naerssen, Reading is the easiest and Speaking skill is the most difficult.It is an active skill. It needs the skill of choosing the correct words and combine into sentences .No preparation is possible and no revision also is available. Reading involves many processes.
During this process, learners show their differences in their ability. Some speak it out fluently. Some fail to organize the words for expression. This is because of their psychological characteristics .They are motivation, anxiety, extroversion and self-esteem.
Language involves four skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. Oral skill is learnt through listening and imitating. Then by repeated practice and exposure one learns to speak one’s language.
Usually children are able to express emotions, feelings, intentions and reactions very easily in their mother tongue. They are unable to do the same in English language. They have little practise in English. Controlled and guided activities are not provided to the learners.
The children will be able to develop oral skills in English by practising the wide range of skills mentioned below.
1. Class room English
2. Telling Stories ( Story Telling)
3. Creating situations for dialogue
4. Language games & activities
5. Use of language in social gatherings
6. Conducting Interviews &
7. Telephonic Conversation.
I CLASS ROOM ENGLISH:
Class room English gives confidence to the learners. Introducing simple phrases from day to day life helps to develop one’s ability to communicate meaningfully. Children are interested in what the phrases are used.
Good morning / afternoon
Whose book is this? etc.,
Classroom English is the English used by a teacher in a class. It is a language for special purpose.
Listening is the first skill that all children learn. It goes mainly through ears. This is the main source of the language. The following activities by the teacher in the classroom help the learners to learn the language.
1. Story Telling
2. Mime Stories
4. Presenting new language orally
5. Dialogues & role play work
6. Listen & Do activities / instructions.
In the classroom English the teacher uses interesting words and sentences. The following are the common classroom situations.
Greetings: Good morning!
How are you?
Introduction: My name is …………
My father’s name is ……….
Attendance work: Who is absent today?
Why are you late, here?
Blackboard Activity: Please go to the board.
Go and clean the board.
Class Control: Silence, please.
Your attention, please.
Group work: Get into groups of two.
Divide the class
To Start: Work on you own.
No discussion, please.
To Stop: That will do, thank you,
All right. Close it.
Approval & Encouragement: Very good. Keep it up.
Well done. You are correct.
Try it again.
You can try again.
Ending a Class: It’s time to stop.
It’s time to end now.
That’s all for today. Thank you.
Home work: Finish this at home
Complete the exercise at home. Saying Goodbye: See you, bye.
See you, tomorrow
Enjoy you holiday.
II STORY TELLING
Story telling is a very old art. Everyone likes a good story. It is used to convey information and entertain listeners. Stories have the power to awaken, thrill and transform the audience. Stories, Metaphors, anecdotes, similies and analogies are used as methods of Communication and teaching.
Story telling is part of our Indian Culture. It helps to acquire knowledge in our learning process. Story telling is a great tool to educate children better.
Qualities of a Story Teller:
A story teller requires effective Communication skills, patience and endurance. He needs good observation, listening skills. Excellent reading habits, positive attitude, body language and a good command over the language are necessary.
What is Story Telling?
Story Telling is an effective medium of Communication. It relates a tale to one or more listeners through voice and gestures. It is a very effective teaching tool. It is a medium to transfer our tradition, culture and values. It is a link between our imagination and surroundings.
Story Telling is an individual art. Each person can develop his technique and style. To become an effective story teller one must be a good listener. Story telling can be used as a tool to teach all the subjects. Apt stories are to be selected by the teller. The stories must be familiar to the learners. The stories should have strong characters and simple structures.
It helps improve the attention span of children. It promotes involvement and participation. It increases children’s willingness to Communicate. It encourages student’s participation. It improves listening skills.
Elements of a Good Story:
Characters, plot, conflict, style of telling, tone, pace, volume of voice, non-verbal communication, body posture, eye-contact, gestures, involving the group are the elements of a good story.
III CREATING SITUATIONS FOR DIALOGUES:
Creating class room activities in the form of simple commands will be extremely useful. They can involve any of the four skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. At primary level speaking skill is given more importance. The following activities could be used by the teacher in the class room.
Class room Language:
Instructions at the beginning of a class:
Are you ready?
Repeat after me
Open your books.
At the end of a Class
Have you finished?
Close your books.
Language for comprehension:
Are you ok?
Are you ready?
Do you follow me?
To use English in social contexts, communicative activities, Guessing games, Guessing sentences and miming are the other activities in creating situations for dialogues.
IV LANGUAGE GAMES AND LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES
Games provide an interesting way of learning any language. It develops self-confidence and skills of reading, speaking, listening and writing. It improves the communication skills of the students.
Games can be used in many different settings. It develops social skills in children. Games can be used for review, for new information and for reinforcement. It helps students to make and sustain the effort of learning. Language games make learners use the language directly. Games are used as short warm up activities. A game must be more than just fun. It should be friendly and all the students should involve in the games.
“Just a minute Game, Whisper circles, Missing headlines and what is there in my bag today?” are some of the language games.
V. USE OF LANGUAGE IN SOCIAL GATHERINGS
Use of language cannot be confined to the classroom alone. The learner must use the learned language in social gatherings also. They get lots of chances to express themselves both in the classroom and out of the school.
The following clubs and association meeting will give them opportunities to express their language skills.
1. Literary Association meetings
2. Science club
3. English club
4. Red Ribbon club
5. School Day functions etc.,
Activities must be provided by making the learners participate in discussions on topics like ‘AIDS Education’ and the importance of ‘Life Skills’.
Conduct model association meetings. Every student is given practice with welcome address and vote of thanks. The various expressions used in welcome address, meetings, greetings, introductions, appointments, enquiries can be presented on the blackboard.
VI CONDUCTING INTERVIEWS
An interview is a useful conversation between two or more people. The interviewer collects information from the interviewee. There are two types of interviews. They are interviews for assessment and interviews for information.
Job interview is a familiar and common one. The employer assesses the social skill and the intelligence of the employee. Other interviews are also used for school admissions and allotment of grants, bank loans and other areas.
Conduct mock interviews from the news paper advertisements for different types of jobs. Do’s and don’ts of interview are discussed with the students. Mode of accepting, way of declining the offer, questions to be avoided, evaluating the interview are also discussed with the learners. This activity helps children develop self-confidence. Similarly, interviews for data collection can also be done. The children may devise their own way of recording the collected information.
WHAT IS BODY LANGUAGE IN AN INTERVIEW?
Firm hand shake
No slang terms and
Use of Standard English.
VII TELEPHONE ENGLISH
To communicate well on the telephone needs lots of practise. It requires special skills. Learning the common phrases that are used on the telephone help students to develop the skill. Lack of visual communication hinders their communication abilities. To improve telephonic skills the student may be trained with the telephonic phrases, telephonic techniques to improve confidence and telephonic practice exercises with the colleagues in the class room.
1. Telephone Role Play
2. Telephone Language and phrases in English
3. Telephone practice Exercises.
Role play consists of simple Conversations or a series of simple situations. These role play cards can be elaborated. These cards are prepared from the telephone language and phrases in English for the following situations.
Answering the phone
Asking for someone
Putting someone through
Taking a message and
TEACHING OF PROSE
“Prose is words in their best order”
Prose is meant for learning a language. Teaching prose means teaching reading with comprehension. The learners are taught the skill of reading. The next step is to teach them reading with comprehension. Reading with comprehension helps the learners to acquire new vocabulary and content words. The power of comprehension can be promoted through reading and listening. Teaching prose enables the students to understand the passage, to read fluently, to enrich their vocabulary and to enjoy reading and writing. It enables the learners to extend their knowledge of vocabulary and structures and to become more proficient in the four language skills. It develops the ability of speaking English correctly and fluently.
The main aims of teaching prose are
a) literary and
To achieve the literary and content, the aims of teaching of prose should be intensive and extensive.
Reading a text for accuracy is called intensive reading. It is done with the close guidance of the teacher. It forces the learners to pay more attention to the text. It involves the profound and detailed understanding of the text. It is primarily concerned with the developing of reading strategies.
The reading strategies are
- Interpretation and
Intensive reading is more an exercise in accuracy. Students do not read a text only for a specific purpose of information. A text is considered suitable for scanning of information, paying attention to the writer’s intensions, arguments, ideas, style, etc., The students are expected to answer all questions which involve their understanding of the text, grammar, vocabulary, writing, etc., So, an intensive reading must be based on the structural syllabus.
- It must be interesting.
- It should be well graded.
- Multiple numbers of colourful pictures are necessary.
- The pictures should stimulate an interest in the lessons.
- More opportunities for oral discussions before reading the text.
- Difficult words, phrases and ideas should be clearly explained by the teacher.
- It must have provisions for silent reading and reading aloud.
AIMS OF TEACHING PROSE:
The main aim of teaching prose is to develop the language ability of the students. It is the intensive study of a language. The language ability helps the learners to use English language without any problem.
GENERAL AIMS OF TEACHING PROSE:
To enable the students
- To understand the passage and grasp its meaning.
- To read with correct pronunciation, stress, intonation, pause and articulation of voice.
- To enable students to understand the passage by silent reading.
- To enrich their active and passive vocabulary.
- To express the ideas of the passage orally and in writing.
- To enjoy reading and writing.
- To develop their imagination.
- To prepare the students for world citizenship.
The specific aims of prose change according to the subject matter like biography, play, story and essay.
SPECIFIC AIMS OF A STORY:
- The learners learn a few facts through the story.
- To teach morals.
- To mould one’s character.
- Exposure to the style of story writing.
SPECIFIC AIMS OF AN ESSAY:
- The learners learn a few facts through the essay.
- To make students curious about the subject of essay.
- Exposure to the style of essay-writing.
- To arrange ideas in an organized manner.
SPECIFIC AIMS OF A BIOGRAPHY:
- The learners are exposed to the lives of great men.
- To mould one’s character.
- Aspiration for better things in life.
- To inculcate in them desirable sentiments.
SPECIFIC AIMS OF A PLAY:
- To provide opportunities for self-expression.
- To play different roles.
- To speak English in the conversational style.
- To mould one’s character.
DIFFERENT STEPS INVOLVED IN TEACHING PROSE:
A prose lesson is not for memorization of questions and answers but for learning a language. The prose lesson contains structure, vocabulary, grammar, views and ideas for comprehension. The students read prose with comprehension and write sentences about the lesson using the correct structures and content words. The steps for teaching of prose may be summed up as follows.
1. Introducing the prose lesson
2. Teaching structures
3. Dividing the text into smaller units
4. Teaching vocabulary
5. Model reading by the teacher
6. Silent reading by the students
7. Testing comprehension
8. Testing application
9. Loud reading by the students and
10. Giving assignment
1. INTRODUCING THE PROSE LESSON
Introduction of a lesson is to fulfill two purposes. They are.
a) To recollect the past knowledge.
b) To win student’s attention to the new subject.
Teachers should try to motivate the students to study the new lesson. The various efforts made by the teacher to create interest or to attract the attention of the students is known as preparation of the lesson. The teacher introduces the lesson by asking appropriate questions. He uses models or pictures. The questions arouse the interest for the new lesson. The teacher tests the previous knowledge of the students and links it to the subject.
A new structural item is presented by the teacher to enable the students to identify the new structures. In introducing structures, substitution table is of great help. It highlights the elements of the pattern and their order and nature.
Secondly, the teacher presents the structure in readily understandable situations. It helps the students to cleat its meaning and use. This helps them not only to understand the meaning of the new item but also its use in different contexts. Opportunities are provided to the students to use the structures themselves.
3.Dividing the text into smaller units:
Reading long passages of a text may be tiresome for the teacher. So, the text will have to be split up into smaller, more manageable units or sections. This will facilitate the teacher to present the lesson interestingly and efficiently.
The teacher uses an object, a model or a picture to give clear ideas about new words and their meaning. The meaning may be explained through ‘real situation’.
The purposes of expositions are:
- i. To clear the meaning of difficult words, phrases & idioms.
- ii. To make the comprehension of the passage easy.
- iii. To promote intensive reading.
5.Model Reading by the Teacher:
The teacher reads the selected passage aloud. He should be careful about pronunciation, words, phrases & intonation in his reading before the students. His reading is observed by the learners and imitated. This model reading by the teachers helps the students for aural comprehension. The teacher gives instructions regarding postures and attention. The teacher should not be completely absorbed in his reading.
6.Silent Reading by the students:
The teacher gives time for the students to read the passage silently. Silent reading is helpful for rapid reading, learning of new words and a quick understanding of meaning. A short time of five to ten minutes for silent reading is followed in every session.
To check the students’ comprehension ability, the teacher asks questions to the students. The questions are from the taught passage. The question should be direct, short and objective based. The same procedure i.e. steps 4, 5, 6 & 7 can be followed for the other units of the lesson.
The aim of application test is to evaluate the achievement of the learners. The questions may be of oral or written type. After teaching of structure or vocabulary, the teacher normally asks the students to do the exercises given at the end of the lesson.
9.Loud reading by the students:
The teacher asks the students to read the taught units loudly in the class one by one. To develop clear pronunciation this loud reading is very much helpful. It improves the tone, rhythm and fluency. Each student is asked to read a short passage. At the end of reading, the errors of pronunciations are corrected. Students should be asked to keep the books 30 cm away from the eyes. They hold their books on the left hand and the right hand is free. The teacher needs to exercise more care at the time of students’ reading.
Assignments to the students are given by the teacher for the following purposes.
a) To remember the meaning and spelling of new words.
b) To use the words in sentences.
c) To write the gist of the passage.
d) To answer the questions.
e) To do the exercises based on the taught units.
Examples for task:
- Read the sentences fast. [Drawing a picture of a girl]
- Read the passage and answer the question [Comprehension exercise]
Lesson plan – Model
Standard : VI
Subject : English
Period : Prose
Title : The Young Achiever
Time : 135 min.
Sub unit : 1) From Some are born —————–
Sub unit : 2) From Kutraleeswaran swam
To across ———–to the core.
Motivation : (1. Introducing the unit/lesson).
Teaching Learning Materials:
Step I (2 & 4. Teaching Structure / Content / Words/Vocabulary)
Step II (3. Divide the text into small units, 5. Model Reading)
Step III (6. Silent Reading by the students)
Step IV (7. Testing Comprehension)
Step V (9. Loud Reading)
Step VI (8. Testing Application)
Step VII (Giving assignments)
ALM – Alternative Learning Method for Prose Lesson
ABL – Activity Based Learning
Activity based learning is a new ladder approach in the teaching of English language. It is a simplified process of teaching and learning. It is more logical and natural. Learning involves listening, speaking, reading & writing. All the four skills are interlinked. Negligence of any skill will damage the learning process. Separate logos are assigned for each learning activity. The names of vehicles are selected as logos for English subject. These logos are distributed in the milestones,.
The teacher cannot skip any of the steps in the ladder. There is provision for the learners in this method to proceed at their own pace. This method is followed at primary level in Tamil Nadu and Pudhucherry. In this Active based Learning method, evaluation is a continuous process.
Generally teaching of English to non English speaking people is a difficult task. Several attempts have been made to simplify the process of teaching English to non English people. This Activity based Learning method developed by the Department of Education with the assistance of UNICEF to teach English proved to be a success. This method is learner-centered and focuses on all the four types of skills.
Exposure to an English environment is an imperative aspect on the part of the learners to acquire the right type of pronunciation of English vocabulary. Adequate provision is made on the ladder approach to create an English atmosphere in the classroom. In the Activity Based Learning, the following activities are included in the learning process.
I Listening Skill:
K The letters of the Alphabet
K The words relating to home & school environment
K Greetings and responses
K Informal Conversations
K Simple Commands & instructions
II Speaking Skill:
* Asking and answering simple common questions
* Making polite requests
* Saying, ”Thank you”, and “Sorry” whenever necessary
* Asking for permission
* Expressing their needs
III Reading Skill:
* Recognizing lower and upper case of letters of
* Reading words with pictures
* Reading words without pictures
* Reading words
IV Writing Skills:
* Drawing and painting
* Drawing lines & curves leading to writing
* Writing letters of the alphabet
* Writing words
To attain perfection in the above said process of learning, a lot of activities are suggested. These activities are very carefully designed to suit to the age and grasping power of the children. As these activities are given in cards both the teacher and the pupils can use them quite easily and effectively. There are a good number of self learning activities given for the learners. This ABL method gives self satisfaction and a sense of achievement to the learners. There are provisions for fast learners to proceed fast in their learning and provisions for slow learners without any hindrance at their own pace. In this method, the children know very well what they have learned and what they have to learn later.
Evaluation is a continuous process in this Activity based Learning. To test the level of achievement of the Children test cards are provided. These test cards became an interesting activity and the children feel that evaluation is not a burden. There are examinations twice a year. In this ABL method, there are two types of Logos used in the process of learning. They are :
a) General Logos &
b) Specific Logos
General Logos: 1. Pencil
2. Custard Apple
4. Kit box
1. Pencil indicates drawing, painting & colouring activities. This occurs once in the first year ladder and once in the second year.
2. Custard Apple gives practice in writing straight and slanting lines, left curves, right curves and circles through frames.
3. Pot : Fine muscle development activities such as crushing waste paper-clay or pasticene suggested.
4. Kit box : Introduction of all logos & cards to the students .
Specific Logos used in the ladder:
Baby-walker, tricycle, bicycle, cycle-rickshaw, motorcycle, car, auto, train, van, aeroplane, road roller, parisal, boat, scooter, catamaran, rocket, bus and lorry.
TEACHING OF POETRY
“Poetry begins in delight and ends in wisdom”. – Robert Frost
Poetry is the highest form of literary expression. It is a work of perfect.It appeals to the emotion. It has an aesthetic effect on human mind. Poetry is different from prose. Prose is for information and poetry is for appreciation. It gives details and facts in a beautiful form. It is highly rhythmic in character. Each and every poem is a piece of literature.
Every teacher should develop a taste for poetry. While teaching poems, the teacher should appeal to the emotions of the children. In poetry class, a child enters a different world. The child must feel that it is experiencing a new joy.
Rhymes in English bring the children closer to Engllish language. Rhymes are enjoyed by the children in lower classes. They sing rhymes with movement, gestures and expressions.
1. Rhymes strengthen and develop the memory power of children.
2. They develop active power of imitation and imagination.
3. Rhymes widen the knowledge of vocabulary.
4. Rhymes lay a strong foundation for speech work.
5. A sense of achievement and confidence is developed in the
6. Rhymes train the ears to the varieties of sounds and rhythm.
7. Rhymes are an excellent aid to correct speech.
8. Rhymes develop the skills of listening and speaking.
Suggestions for teaching nursery rhymes (or) Effective methods of introducing rhymes
1. Children are to be taught to feel the charm of music and
2. No explanation of grammatical forms.
3. New words should be drilled.
4. More attention on the words and phrases.
5. Avoid clapping or tapping the desk by the pupils.
6. Pupils are trained to recite clearly and correctly.
7. Practice in groups – one group one line.
8. Practice in pairs.
9. The whole class is practised.
In this way, even the slow learners gain confidence in saying the rhymes.
1. Do not sing the rhyme to begin with.
2. Do not ask individuals to say the rhyme in the beginning.
3. Do not teach any morals.
4. Do not read out the rhyme from the book.
5. Memorise and say the rhyme for correct pronunciation,
gestures and voice modulation.
6. Repeat the rhyme everyday for a short time.
“Poetry is the spontaneous overflow of feelings and emotions in tranquility”
“Poetry should reach the heart of the reader because it emerges from the heart of the poet”.
Poetry is meant for enjoyment and pleasure. It appeals to our senses. In poetry, rhythm is a universal phenomenon. The regular rhythm of poetry appeals to the child. It draws the child more close to the language. It develops the child’s imagination.Poetry is not to be taught. It is to be introduced as an activity because it gives pleasure to the children. This activity is connected with the learning and appreciation of poetry in the curriculum. It is not a mere soulless repetition of the poem. The chief focus is to help the students appreciate and enjoy the poem. This leads them to memorization of the poem.
It is difficult to arouse enthusiasm among the pupils, if the teacher does not read, listen to and enjoy good poems by himself. Poetry appeals to the ears more than the eyes. Rhyme and rhythm play a dominant role in poetry and so it is meant to be read aloud otherwise the effect is lost. Rhymes and songs help fluency in English. Elucidation by questioning brings the poem or poet closer to the pupils.
A few more suggestions for teaching a poem :
1. The message of a poem is more important than the details.
2. The main theme of the poem is to be grasped(understood).
3. Explanation and paraphrasing does not create any enthusiasm.
4. The teacher should present the poem orally with correct
pronunciation and rhythm.
5. Students concentrate all their attention in listening if the poem is
6. Verbal peculiarities should be neglected.
7. Students’ appreciation and understanding of the poem and poet’s
experience can be expressed in the form of drawing.
8. Encourage pupils to do activities at the end of the class.
The Process of Teaching a Poem
There are 3 main stages in the process of teaching a poem. They are as follows:
1. The main outline of the poem is to be understood
by the studens by equipping them.
2. Familiarise the students with important words and
3. Ensure that the ideas of the poem is reachable
and comprehensible by the students.
4. This can be done by getting responses through
simple questions by the teacher.
The teacher reads the poem or recites with proper
pronunciation, intonation, gestures and facial
expressions. If necessary this can be repeated by the
The teacher need not explain every word or every line of the poem. Simple questions may be asked to ensure
their understanding of the poem. The teacher uses pictures to explain the meaning of difficult words. The teacher can pose questions to the class to get
meanings for difficult words.
1. Preparation is equipping the students for quick understanding.
2. Presentation involves reading, re-reading, elucidation of answers, kindling interest and calling for intense concentration on the words, rhymes, rhythm, imagery etc., in the poem.
3. Discussion leads the pupils to a thorough knowledge of the poem.
ACTIVE LEARNING METHODOLOGY
Active learning methodology is also a form of activity based learning. It makes all learners to participate in learning. In this method the students involve in reading, writing, speaking, drawing, sharing, expressing the skills and questioning individually and in groups. Active learning involves students in doing things and thinking about what they are doing.
According to Bonwell and Eison students must do more than just listen. They must read, write, discuss and solve problems. They must engage in higher-order thinking tasks. The tasks are analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Students like strategies promoting active learning than traditional lecture method. In active learning, the students are doing something including discovering, processing and applying information.
Many teaching strategies can be employed to actively engage students in the learning process. The activities in ALM improve skills in critical thinking, increase motivation and retention and interpersonal skills. Active learning involves students directly and actively in the learning process. Instead of simply receiving information verbally and visually, the students are receiving and participating and doing. Active learning methodologies require that the student must find opportunities to meaningfully talk, listen, write and read.
(1) Students are involved in learning. (2) More emphasis on developing students’ skills. (3) Students are involved in higher-order thinking (analysis, synthesis & Evaluation) (4) They are engaged in reading, discussing and writing activities.
Active learning shifts the focus from the teacher to the student. Active learning derives from two basic assumptions:
(1) that learning is by nature an active endeavour and
(2) that different people learn in different ways.
ACTIVE LEARNING METHODOLOGY
Lesson Plan Model
Nature of the Topic :
Time : 90 minutes
Subject : English Grammar
Unit : II sec ‘C’
Technique : Chalk & Talk.
- Introduction :
- Understanding :
- Mind mapping :
- Summarising :
- Discussion :
- Writing Activity :
- Revision :
- Evaluation :
Extensive reading or reading for fluency involves reading of longer texts for pleasure. It is not meant for minute details. It is a fluency activity. The students can read on their own. This is called Rapid reading or Independent silent reading. The specific objectives of extensive reading are:
- To understand the meaning as quickly as possible.
- To increase passive vocabulary.
- To develop taste for reading.
- To develop the habit of reading for pleasure.
- To concentrate upon subject matter.
The term extensive reading means to read silently and quickly. It helps to read without the help of the teacher. It trains the reader to understand the subject matter as quickly and efficiently as possible.
It plays a vital role in the learning of second/foreign language. The students are made to read as much as possible. They are given choice and freedom to select the books of their choice. Reading has its own reward. There are no follow up activities. The reading texts are within the linguistic competence of the reader. Students are permitted to read at their own pace. They choose when to read or where to read. This creates interest among the learners. So they learn to read faster without any disturbance.
Steps involved in Extensive reading
1. The teacher gives main hints of the passage,
2. He explains the difficult portions,
3. He deals with difficult areas of a language,
II.) Silent Reading:
The students should read silently and quickly.
The teacher asks questions to test the students understanding.
In extensive reading, the readers must read silently and understand the matter. This would create interest among the readers. The students may not be interested in reading text books. Interesting magazines, newspaper, etc., may be recommended.
- It helps in assimilation of ideas.
- The class room is busy and active.
- It increases vocabulary.
- It prepares students for library reading.
- Helps for individual method of study and self-education.
- In extensive reading, a child practices what he has learnt.
Steps in teaching supplementary reader
A supplementary reader gives students additional reading practice. They learn to read through reading. It develops the skill of silent reading. The students are able to guess the meanings of some words from the context. They grasp the central idea of the passage. It improves their vocabulary.
They are able to understand the sequence of ideas and events. It extends reading experience. They consolidate the language learnt from the main reader. Finally the students enjoy reading.
A supplementary reader usually contains stories. Later stages biographies and historical events are introduced. Supplementary reader contains long passages with structural and vocabulary items. The students are familiar with the vocabulary. There may be new words and they are not explained. Students guess the meaning of the new words. It has pictures to help the students.
Do’s and Don’ts
- The Supplementary reader is done in the class.
- One full period is allotted for each lesson or story.
- Allow students to read and understand as much as possible.
- Do not read out the passage.
- Do not explain the content.
- No translation of any portion.
- Use relevant pictures to help the students understand.
Teaching a Supplementary Reader
Supplementary reader lesson involves a story or a chapter of a long story or a chapter of a long novel.
- Introduce the passage shortly.
- A part of it is introduced to create interest among the students.
- Meanings for difficult words are not explained in detail. Mother tongue is used in translation. Black board is used to write the meanings.
- Pre-reading questions are presented on the black board.
- Students are asked to read silently.
- Group activities or discussions are followed to answer difficult passages. Different types of direct, local, factual and inferential questions are allowed. Make the students to speak in English while answering.
- Make students to retell the parts of the story or passage in English.
- Students are asked to write the answers at home.
- Select suitable passages for language study.
Teaching Continuous Writing
Writing is a productive skill which involves manipulating, structuring and communicating. Writing helps to strengthen the grasp of vocabulary.
Appropriateness can be developed.
- i. The ability to master the shapes of the alphabets. (Ortho Graphics)
- ii. Knowledge of the right combination of letters to form words. (spellings)
- iii. Skills in expressing oneself through the written piece.
To develop the skill of writing, the students must be motivated. Exercises involving writing activities may be provided in the learning. The first real writing that students do is copying. So, the following activities can be used to encourage writing.
Task – I Copying
Task – II Board Composition
Task – III Completion with choice
Task – IV Completing the paragraph
Task – V Sentence Tables
Task – VI Parallel Composition
Task – VII Parallel composition with pictures
Task – VIII Fill in the blanks
Task – IX Task Composition
Task – I Copying
The teacher introduces the words/sentences orally and the students repeat it. The teacher writes it on the black board. The students read it a number of times. Then they copy it.
Task – II Board Composition
A student builds up a sentence for which the teacher helps either through question or prompts. The teacher writes this on the board and then proceeds as before.
Task – III Completion with choice
The student completes the sentence on the board by choosing the item from the list.
I like playing _________
Task – IV Completing the paragraph
It is a short reading exercise and oral work. After oral work, the teacher writes a few sentences on the board.
“The President lives in Delhi. She lives with her husband and children. The Prime Minister also lives in Delhi”.
The teacher writes sentences that have to be copied out, using information from the passage.
- The President lives in _________. She lives with her _________.
- The Prime Minister also __________ in Delhi.
Task – V Sentence Table
The sentence tables gives chances to construct more complicated sentences.
→she →eating →movie
When →Mala had finished →playing it has time to go to →market
→ I →sleeping →movie
Task – VI Fill in the blanks
The teacher writes on the black board sentences with a number of words missing.
Yesterday we ________ to _______. We _________ with our _______ (zoo, ran, walked, went, go, family)
The teacher supplies all the required words in addition to new words. Children choose the correct words to fill up the blanks.
Task – VII Picture Composition
The teacher supplies with series of pictures with sentences. Students look at the pictures and complete the story.
(1) What is a paragraph ?
A paragraph consists of a topic sentence. It is followed by a number of related sentences. It usually ends in a concluding statement.
- Topic Sentence
- Supporting Details
- Closing sentence or Concluding statement
(2) Name the different types of paragraphs.
There are five types of paragraphs. They are
- Compare and Contrast
(3) What is a topic sentence ?
It is the most important sentence in a paragraph. It sums up the whole idea of the para. It may come in the beginning, middle or at the end. It introduces the main idea of the para.
(4) What are supporting sentences ?
Supporting sentences come after the topic sentence. They make up the body of a paragraph. They give details to develop and support the main idea of the paragraph. Supporting sentences may consist of facts, details and examples.
(5) What is a closing sentence ?
A closing sentence is the last sentence of a paragraph. It restates the main idea of the paragraph.
A paragraph is a number of sentences grouped together. It relates to one topic or a group of related sentences that develop a single point.
What is the prewriting stage ?
The prewriting stage needs careful thinking and organization of ideas before writing. There are six prewriting steps. They are:
- Think carefully about what you are going to write.
- Open your notebook.
- Collect related facts.
- Pen down your ideas.
- Find the main idea.
- Organise your facts and ideas (in a way that develops the main idea).
What is the writing stage ?
Turning the ideas into sentences is called the writing stage. There are five steps involved in this. They are:
- Open your notebook and word processor.
- Write the Topic sentence, Supporting sentence and closing sentence.
- Write clear and simple sentences to express the meaning.
- Focus on the main idea of the paragraph.
- Use dictionary to find additional words.
What is the editing stage ?
The editing stage is checking the paragraph for mistakes and correcting them.
- Grammar and spelling
- Style and organisation
- Finalising paragraphs
1. Grammar & Spelling
a) Check the spelling.
b) Check the grammar.
c) Reread the essay.
d) Presence of subject in each sentence.
f) Check the verbs.
g) Meaning sentence.
2. Style and Organisation
1. Confirm the topic sentence.
2. Confirm whether the supporting sentence focuses on the main idea.
3. Confirm the closing sentence.
4. Check all sentences focus on the main idea.
5. It must be interesting.
‘The Publishing Stage’ is when you produce a final copy of the paragraph to submit.
- Make a paper copy.
- Show the work to your teacher, parents.
- Ask them for suggestion or hints to improve.
Name the different types of paragraphs and explain.
- Compare and Contrast
- 1. Definition paragraph :
When writing a definition paragraph, you take an idea and explain what it is .
It is defined as, It is a kind of ………..
Ex: A pest is defined as ……
A pest is a kind of …….
2. Sequence paragraph :
Describing a series of events or a process in order is a sequence paragraph. This order is based on time.
Order – Time
First, Second recently,
Before, then, previously
At last when, after
3. Classification Paragraph :
Grouping of things or ideas with specific categories is a classification para.
Ex: Discussing two types of energy resources.
4. Description paragraph :
Describing about a person, place or thing. Even location of a place may be described.
Related words: size, length, resembles, in, on, etc.,
5. Compare and Contrast :
Writing about the similarities and differences between two or more people, places, things or ideas. Ex: Compare two cars, two places.
You can download and print the file english1.pdf annexed herewith:
1. There are three types of motivation.
They are intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and integrated motivation.
2. Motivation is essential for spoken English.
3. It is a crucial force for the learners.
4. It is a complex phenomenon.
It includes success, curiosity, desire for stimulation and experience and so on.
5. Motivated learning improves this skill of speaking.
6. Motivated learners are active in English class .They are cooperative with teachers in the classroom activities. The more they succeed the more they are motivated.
1.Anxiety is a sense of worry; a kind of subconscious fear.
2. They are bad for the students.
3. Teacher is one of the causes for anxiety in the classroom.
4. It is the duty of the teacher to remove the anxiety from the students.
5. The teacher should create a happy atmosphere.
Anxiety is the result of personal factors. Some become emotional, angry, fast. Individual anxiety differs from person to person.
6. A certain amount of anxiety can stimulate a learner.
7. It is understood that these two fears are the causes disturbing the learning process.
8. Removal of this fear will motivate the learners for their active learning.
1.Self-esteem refers to the individual evaluation on himself.
2. It is an individual experience.
3. It is also a judgment from outside world.
4. Self-esteem develops self-confidence and self-affirmation.
In English learning they evaluate themselves.
5. They develop other skills like reading, writing, listening and translating.
These people with self-esteem can achieve proficiency in English than the others in the class.
6. In unfamiliar situation, they are ready to take risks.
1.The term extroversion means confident and activeness.
Learners with an outgoing personality have advantages. They are social, and as a result they are very active in the class and out of the class.
2. They involve in spoken activities.
3. They attract more attention from teachers.
4. They display their oral skills.
5. They perform more confidently.
6. They communicate in English very easily.
1.Self-concept develops student’s motivation.
2. It decreases the trait anxiety and environmental anxiety.
3. It increases student’s self-esteem.
4. A positive self-concept is a sign of the healthy psychology.
The four factors of motivation, anxiety, self-esteem and extroversion are included in self-concept.
5. It is an integrated psychological factor.
Self-concept is closely connected with learner’s psychological quality, and he becomes more self-confident.
6. He tries his level best to achieve in his task.
Active self-evaluation is of great importance in improving the student’s English level.
METHODS AND APPROACHES OF TEACHING ENGLISH
Many children learn several languages at a very young age. Language teaching involves many methods. All the available methods may be appropriate to different contexts. There is no one single method strongly recommended in the teaching of English since the level of the learners differ from one anothers. So, it becomes inevitable for a teacher to know the different methods of teaching & learning Awareness of variety of methods help him to apply the relevant method in his classroom successfully.
As a teacher the objective of teaching English must be achieved. Many children learn several languages at a very young age but some fail to learn even the basic English. A child acquires all the necessary skills in his mother tongue easily whereas it fails in the second language. The salient features which affect the learning of second language among the students are discussed below:
||Learning is the act of gaining knowledge and skill by study and from experience etc.,|
||It is done in a later stage.|
||Language learning is a conscious process|
||It involves the skills of reading, speaking and writing.|
||It need not be important in language learning.|
||Learning does not need motivation.|
||In learning, fluency is not guaranteed.|
||Learning is a conscious process in knowing the rules of the language.|
JIM CUMMINS’ INTER DEPENDENCE HYPOTHESIS
According to Jim Cummins’ a firm foundation in L1 is essential to master L2. Learning of mother tongue is a natural process. This natural process should be adopted in learning English as second language. L1 learning takes place in the early stages. So, the same process can be adopted in L2.
- Due attention on correct pronunciation and accent.
- Formation of speech habits should be paramount. (important)
- Formal Loud Reading.
- Avoid teaching of grammar.
- Life related words are introduced.
- Create exposure to language (L2) for communication.
- Create informal atmosphere in L2 classroom.
- Build up efforts for real life communication.
- Encourage learners to focus on the meaning or message, not on form.
- Be tolerant to errors. If correction is needed, do it incidentally.
METHOD, APPROACH, DESIGN & PROCEDURE
What is a Method?
A method refers to the overall plan for the proper presentation of language material. It is based on selected approach and procedure. It include three parts
What is an Approach?
An approach is concerned with the theory of the Nature of Language and Language Learning.
What is a Design?
- A Design concerns with the general specific objective of the course.
- A syllabus model
- Types of learning and learning tasks.
- Role of learners and teachers
- Role of learning materials.
What is a Procedure?
A procedure is the actual happening of the classroom techniques, practices and behaviours.
THE GRAMMAR – TRANSLATION METHOD
The (Grammar Translation Method) is a cross lingual technique. It is used in language learning. Grammar is given more importance in this method. Learners understand the grammar rules better. The exercises in this method put the learner into an active problem-solving situation. In the schools, the teachers often follow the traditional method of translation technique. It is an easy way to explain things. Great Indian leaders is the past had attained remarkable progress in this method. Reading and writing are the major focus. Vocabulary selection is based solely on the text used. The words are introduced through bilingual word lists dictionary and memorization. The grammar rules are presented. A list of vocabulary items is presented with their translation meanings. Translation exercises are prescribed. Grammar is taught inductively. Mother tongue is the medium of instruction.
Steps involved in Grammar Translation Method
- The teacher asks the students to read few lines from the text. He asks them to translate into L1 and he helps them with new words.
- The teacher answers all their questions in L1
- The students write the answers for the questions
- The answers are checked by them. Mistakes are corrected by the teacher. He speaks in L1
- The students are asked to translate the words listed into their L1. The teacher helps them in synonyms, Antonyms and Meanings for these words.
- The teacher works the grammar exercises and he presents grammar rules. The students do the exercises and translate the sentences into L1.
- The students translate the lines from the text into L1. They memorize the read out listed words and frame sentences for the vocabulary items.
- Students write a composition based on the passage.
This GTM was in use for 100 years from 1840 to 1940. It had its own drawnbacks.
- It failed to produce oral fluency in English.
- Students found the method boring as they had to memorize words and rules.
- It does not develop confidence among the learners.
- The use of L1 is more predominantin the class.
- No link between the text words and real life situations.
- The learner was unable to use English in day to day Communication
- This method focused only in reading and writing. Little attention is paid to speaking.
THE DIRECT METHOD
The salient features of the Direct Method are
- The use of everyday vocabulary and structures is the object of language teaching.
- The learner is expected to use the language to the outside situations.
- Oral skills are developed in this method. (Question-answer session, Interaction exercises and intensive drills). Speech habits are developed by initiation drill.
- Grammar is taught inductively
- It focuses on the second language learning in a natural way.
- Concrete meanings are taught through situational approach. The meaning of a word is not given in L1 & L2.
- Abstract meanings are taught through association of ideas.
- Both oral and listening skills are taught.
- Translation method is avoided.
- Good pronunciation is aimed at.
- Writing skill is secondary.
The Direct Method was introduced in France and Germany. In the U.S., it is known as Berlitz Method. The main aim of this method is to help the students to speak the target language (L2) fluently and correctly.
In this method, a short text is presented and difficult words are explained in L2 to the learners. The understanding is tested by questioning and the students learn grammar rules on their own. Question-answer sessions, interaction exercises, intensive classroom drills, dictation, free composition, pronunciation are done in the classroom to develop and strengthen L2.
- Its procedures and techniques were difficult.
- Teachers had difficulty in explaining the difficult words.
- Fluency in L2 is necessary.
- No selection and grading of vocabulary and structures.
- It was a success in private language schools but not in public secondary schools.
- There was less time and less opportunity available in the classroom.
THE BILINGUAL METHOD
Dr.C.J.Dadson developed the Bilingual method. This method needs L1 and L2. The approach begins from Bilingual and becomes monolingual at the end. The teacher uses both mother tongue (L1) and the target language (L2) in the classroom. This may be considered as a combination of the Direct Method and the Grammar Translation Method.
The principles followed in this method are:
- Any Foreign Language or Second language can be learned with the help of L1.
- Mother tongue is not used as Translation.
- Teacher only uses L1 in the class room
- Students are not allowed to use their mother tongue.
- Sentence is the unit of teaching
- L1 is used by the teacher to achieve his communication or explanation.
- Teacher gives meanings in L1 for meaningful parts or sentences.
- When the students achieve sufficient communicative proficiency, L1 is withdrawn by the teacher.
PROCEDURE / STEPS IN TEACHING
- First the teacher reads out a dialogue to the class. The students listen to the teacher with their books closed.
- The students repeat the lines with the teacher with their books opened in the second reading.
- The teacher gives sentence wise or meaningful parts wise L1 equivalents (meanings)
- The teacher says each sentence of the dialogue twice with L1 version (meanings)
Teacher: Would you give me your book?
Teacher: (Gives L1 version)
Teacher: Would you give me your book?
Teacher: (Directs the students to repeat the sentence)
- The focus is on the grammatical structures not on the day-to-day conversation
- The teacher must be proficient (fluent) in L1 and L2.
- It does not follow any set theory
- Students become dependent on their mother tongue
- The methods and procedures are not different
S.O.S (The Structural-Oral-Situational approach)
The SOS approach was officially accepted by the Madras Presidency in 1950. Till 1990, the SOS has been practiced in schools in South India. It is a communication of certain aspect of the Direct Method, oral and Audio Lingualism. The basic importance features of this approach are:
- Learning a language is not only learning its words but also the syntax
- Vocabulary is presented through grades.
- The four skills of (LSRW) Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing are presented in order.
- Sentence patterns exist and can form the basis of a language course.
- Class room teaching and learning are made enjoyable.
- Concrete linguistic items are taught through Demonstration
- Abstract ideas are taught through association.
- It helps to develop learners competence in the use of structure in L2.
TEACHING OF ADJECTIVES
Practical Application: Use of small + so + such + Noun/s
- The books are small and thin.
- The books are so small that I can put three of them in my pocket.
- These are such small books that I can put three of them in my pocket.
Similar sentences are presented by the teacher.
- The situations are not real-life situation.
- The teacher had to carry a lot of TLM’s
- Explanation of abstract ideas is very difficult
- It is viable only in the elementary level
- The approach has been found inadequate and ineffective.
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
CLT is a functional approach to language learning. In 1972, this language course was proposed in Europe. The main aim is to develop the communicative competency of the learner. His need of understanding and expressing in the L2 is the main focus of this method.
OBJECTIVES OF CLT:
- To produce effective communicative competency in learners.
- The focus is on meanings and functions of the language.
- More importance on the learner and his learning.
- Language is acquired in CLT.
- The teacher is a facilitator in language acquisitions.
- Involve the learner in the learning process thro’ problem solving, tasks, participation and interaction.
- All the four LSRW skills are equally treated.
It is an eclectic approach. CLT involves many classroom activities like group work, pair work, language games, role play, question-answer sessions. It is not confined to any set of text books. The learners are mostly introduced task based and problem solving situations.
- No single uniform method is prescribed
- Different techniques are followed in the process of learning
- Several roles are assigned to the teachers.