TEACHING LEARNING MATERIALS
Name the different types of Teaching Learning Materials:
- Resource centre
- Language games
- Language lab
- NITE (Newspaper in Teaching English)
- Blackboard Sketches
- Use of Radio, T.V. for teaching English
- Internet for Teaching English
- Use of ICT for Teaching English
In this Computer age, Language resources become necessary and inevitable for the successful classroom management and effective interaction. So, every school should have a resource centre for teaching, learning and self-learning. A resource centre must have many teaching learning materials. It includes a language lab, a library and a variety of audio and videos materials. The following materials will be more useful in a classroom teaching. They are
- Paper-bag puppets
- Glove puppets
- Hand puppets
- Finger puppets
- Class mascot
- Paper dolls
- English corner for speaking
- Picture cards with different items
- Word/Sentence cards for display and for flannel graph.
- Calendar for birthdays & important days
- Clock for interactive or individual practice tasks
- Weather chart with different types of days (rainy day, cloudy day….etc.,)
- Books display
- Borrowing cards
- Maps of local area
- Wall charts
- Building blocks
- Cassette recorders
- Overhead Projector
- Learner’s profile
2. LANGUAGE GAMES
Language is a tool of Communication. Everyone needs a language to express one’s feelings and emotions. Language games help the learners to learn the language in an interesting manner. It develops self confidence and skills of LSRW i.e., listening, speaking, reading and writing. These games can be used in many different settings. In the classroom situation it helps to improve teaching and learning. It improves the Communication skills of students. It also develops the social skills in children. Skilled teachers determine the quality of games to be used in the classroom. These games can be changed according to the taste of the children in the classroom. The following language games can be successfully used by the teacher in the classroom to develop the skill of communication.
- The teacher uses the class register. He picks out few names. He asks meaningful language questions. The students answer the questions.
- Grammar based questioning.
- The students are asked to identify the sound words in sentences. Pill-peal; ear-hear.
- Students frame sentences by comparing themselves with other students.
- Study of cognates or borrowed words from English within two minutes and framing sentence by pairs of students.
- Students stand in order in small groups of 5 or 10. Each one states his name and names of other students.
My name is ——————-
His name is ——————-
- Imaginary classroom : The students are asked to frame sentences using prepositions.
- By describing a picture the students compose single grammatical utterances.
- Describing and guessing game.
Ex: It has two doors. We keep books in it. What is it?
“ The cupboard”
3. LANGUAGE LAB
The language lab is an aid in modern language teaching. It is an audio or audio visual installation. It is used for language teaching and remedial English classes. The students are exposed to a variety of listening and speaking skills. It builds self-confidence in using English language.
There are two types of language labs. They are:
- Traditional System
- New System
- TRADITIONAL SYSTEM: The traditional language lab system has a master position which was electrically connected to the students booths. Each student is provided with a tape recorder and a boom arm. The entire tape recorder system was controlled from the master position. The teacher can control the students tape recorders like recording, stopping, rewinding etc., This helps easy distribution of the master programme material to the learners. Once the programme is transferred on to the student recorders, the students takes control of their machines. By pressing the record key in the booth, the student would hear the playback programme.
- NEW LANGUAGE LAB. SYSTEM: The new language lab. System is a resource centre and the Central focus of a school language department. Multi numbers of activities are provided in the new system. It is a combination of traditional system and the modern technology. It is provided with Computers, video, electronic testing. It has other facilities like reading English periodicals, bulletin boards, language games, word games, quizzes, debates, skits etc.,
CHARACTERISTICS OF TASK-BASED ACTIVITIES IN THE LANGUAGE LAB:
There are three main characteristics of task-based activities. They are:
- The activities have a purpose that requires the use of the target language. Ex(story telling).
- It makes use of the special facilities of the language lab which are not available in the class room situation.
- The activities motivate the students. The students are involved in the activities. The activities create a desire to excel.
The objective of task-based activities is to provide learners with opportunities to use English effectively. The learner explores the language through situational activities. Duplication is avoided in the teaching process.
The role of a teacher is very important in the preparation of task based activities. The teacher has to
- Develop software.
- Make use of computer assisted instruction.
- Organize activities.
- Prepare learning materials.
- Maintain equipment.
- Organize lab.
- Provide task based activities.
- Interact with students.
- Co-ordinate activities.
TRADITIONAL CLASSROOM VERSES MULTIMEDIA LAB:
|Traditional Classroom||Multimedia Lab|
|Teaching Tools||Chalk, Blackboard, Audio tapes||Computer Network, Video|
|Teaching Materials||Text Book||Interactive Computer Software|
|Communicative Activities||Imaginative role-play||Real Computer based situation|
|Students teacher||Direct contact with teacher||Less intimacy|
4. NEWSPAPER IN TEACHING ENGLISH (NITE)
Newspaper can play an important role in the classroom. The students are motivated to develop the reading skill. So, the teacher must judiciously (wisely) use the newspaper activities, very carefully. There are four key ways teachers can use newspaper materials successfully.
- Pre-activity preparation
- Material selection
- Task designing
- It involves familiarizing the materials with the students.
- It prepares students for any difficult language.
Selection of Materials:
Newspaper materials strengthen the skills of the students
- Reading skill with comprehension.
- Creative writing.
- Improve knowledge of structure.
- Reinforcing grammatical items.
Reading a newspaper may be a boring task. But selecting small items like headlines, news columns, pictures in the newspaper, advertisements, business columns, sports columns can be successfully used by a resourceful teacher. Selecting easy and small items in the paper would help the learners in developing skills.
Designing of Tasks:
Collect old newspapers and cut according to different columns. (sports, business etc.,)
- Frame questions
- Make negative sentences
- Write degrees of comparison
- Direct speech
- Indirect speech Sentences
- The role of the press in this century – Discuss.
- Arranging the jumbled Headline words.
- Frame sentences with punctuation marks.
- Frame meaningful grammatical sentences.
- Read out the sentences & discuss their accuracy.
Task – 3: Expansion of Headlines into a meaningful paragraph.
Task – 4: Preparing News bulletin with the help of Headlines.
Task – 5: Answering questions from the advertisements.
- Compare two English newspapers.
- Discussion on the introductory para of an article.
- Finding factual information from newspaper on an article.
- Creation of a class newspaper and writing new items.
- BLACKBOARD SKETCHES
Chalk board is a basic and an important tool of instruction. It is widely used by the teachers in the classroom. Blackboard helps the teacher to explain his personal visualization of the teaching matter. It is the most trusted and powerful companion of a teacher.
Blackboard work is to be planned properly by the teacher. It can be divided into four convenient sections. One part may be for pictures, another part for planned work, another for tables & lists and another for unforeseen use. The teacher has to erase the board unless it is absolutely necessary for follow up work.
Techniques of usage: As there are different types of chalkboards available, a teacher can have many techniques to employ in the classroom. There are four types of techniques for the teacher to choose the subject matter and integrate it. They are
- The Template technique.
- The Pattern technique.
- The Magnetic board technique.
- The Subject matter outline technique.
- The Template Technique: Templates are cut out of Cardboard, or wood. It is used to draw the outline of regular symbols and diagrams on the blackboard. These templates can be stored.
- The Pattern Technique: The outline of a diagram are punched on a tracing paper sheet. The punches are perforated with a nail. A dusty erasor is rubbed against the perforated section on the outline. The chalk dust sticks on the board. The pattern is completed by free-hand drawings.
- The Magnetic Board Technique: This is a steel chalk board with pieces of magnets. Magnets help to fix the three-dimensioned objects on the board. A Cloth curtain is fixed at the top of the board.
- The Subject Matter Outline: Technique, Description, Procedures, Processes and experiments are presented through worded summaries. The important words and phrases are focused to help understanding. Key ideas are coloured.
Low Level Blackboard: Low level blackboard is meant for the children in the classroom. Three sides of the classroom are painted black. The children are motivated since they have a sense of achievement & satisfaction. It promotes healthy competition among the learners and improves the performance. There is scope for peer learning, peer correction, peer evaluation, self learning and self evaluation.
Chalk Sheets for Teaching: Uniform sheets of quality wrapping paper or craft paper or thin card or construction paper are painted with blackboard paint. The sheets are dried and bound on one side. The Teacher can present the teaching item in small units. Explanary sketches are used. This can be wiped with wet cloth.
Blackboard Drawing: Every teacher must be able to draw simple pictures on the blackboard. Simple stick figures will motivate the students in the classroom. Stick figures are very effective in language teaching. It shows the word or phrase clearly without distraction. There are two types of stick figures.
Type – I, Stick figure is very simple and accurate. They are used for quick blackboard sketches during the lesson. It takes less time to draw and can be replaced very quickly.
Type – II Stick figures : They are comparatively elaborate. To provide ‘situation’ Type – II stick figures can be used along with flash cards and wall pictures. These sketches are learner friendly. These should be drawn before the lesson begins. All sticks are composed of straight lines & curves.
White board or Marker board: A white board is a name for any glossy, smooth surface. It is commonly coloured white. It is very common in offices, meeting room & class room. A special marker pen with removable ink is used.
Advantages: It does not create dust. This can be used for an OHP or video projects. The teacher can fill up, edit, underline what is shown in the projected image. The pen is very easy to write with. It takes less time and less effort. The pens have greater raze of colour.
6. USE OF RAIO, T.V. & INTERNET FOR TEACHING ENGLISH
In this age of Science & Technology, mass media cannot be overestimated. Radio & Television are the most powerful media at present. Educational Technology consists of all materials, media and methods. It comprises (includes) of teaching aids like books, journals, charts, posters, chalk sticks etc., (1) Educational broadcasting through Radio and Telecasting thro’ Television is a means of motivation.
(2) It is a direct instructional medium.
(3) It enriches formal educational system.
(4) It serves as a training component for teachers and Supervisors.
(5) It improves the professional skill.
Radio technology helps the teachers to integrate technology into the Curriculum. It reinforces the skill of listening, writing and speaking. It provides an opportunity for the students to listen to the native speakers of English. In the absence of Internet facility, Radio becomes an accessible technology. It makes the classroom educational programmes more attractive and interesting. The teacher should not use the content passively. He can successfully divide the programmes into three sessions.
- Pre – listening session
- Listening session &
- Post- listening session.
Pre-listening: The teacher presents a script of an English Language passage with blank spaces. Definitions for the missing words are given below the script. While listening to the recorded passage, the students are asked to fill up the words.
Listening: The students listen to the recorded passage with the script. Vocabulary is explained through context. Again the students are given definitions for other words in random. The remaining passage is played in the recorder. The students identify the words without the support of the script. The recognized words are matched with the given definition.
Post – listening: The students are asked to create new sentences using the learned words. Similar activities can be designed by the teacher either on live or recorded radio programme. The students are exposed to the native language speakers of English.
Television is the most powerful medium of communication. It has completely changed the method of education.
- It is a convenient method.
- It is economical.
- It covers large section of people at a time.
- It helps to overcome learning difficulties.
- The programme must fit comfortably.
- The objectives are well defined by the teachers.
- It should be interesting.
- It should motivate the children.
- The material & equipment must be easily accessible.
- Picture quality is important.
- All children must be able to view the programme.
- The room should not be darkened.
- Glaring is to be avoided.
- Proper viewing depends upon screen size.
- Students are made to sit according to their heights.
- Students with poor vision are to be taken care.
- Teacher gives background information about the programme.
- Prime Time.
Ask the students to arrange the areas of interest in the T.V. like Music, Cartoon, Travel etc.,The students are asked to get answers given by the teacher from the other students. The teacher clarifies points, answers questions, leads discussion & individual help alone is given. The teacher actively responds to the lesson. He also encourages children to respond to question. The follow up activities are designed by the teacher depending upon the T.V programme. Ex:
- Writing poems, letters, stories
- Note making, Reports, outline history
- Articles for school
- Vocabulary building
- Books for TV series.
Teleconferencing is the two-way connection of two or more locations thro’ audio and video equipment. It is a method of extending classroom at different locations. It is similar to classroom instruction.
- Awareness of the equipment operation is essential.
- Run a test session with the location.
- Contact information in case of technical failure.
- Way of interaction with the organizer by the students.
- Camera should get the best picture of the participant.
- Arrange the classroom in a triangular formation.
- Give seed question to generate discussion among the learners.
- Small group discussion during break time.
7. INTERNET FOR TEACHING ENGLISH
The Internet is commonly referred to in its abbreviation form as ‘Net’. It is also known as cyberspace or the information superhighway. It is one of the most significant development in communication tools.
The benefits of Internet are manifold:
- Browsing news.
- Reading news.
- Reading books.
- Getting software.
- Playing games.
- Watching videos.
- Exchanging messages.
- On line banking etc.,
The internet is the powerful instructional tool. It is an ideal mechanism for encouraging students for learning. Internet provides different learning resources. The participants become active. Students are able to define their learning needs. They can find information, assess and communicate their discoveries with others.
Internet navigation skills are necessary for the learners to get the correct information. Simple searching rules are introduced to the learners. The students may be asked to prepare notes on essential words of internet operation. After analyzing & organizing information, documentation of a product is important. Students can record the website, name of the website etc., in the bibliography format.
Podcasts is one of the ways of improving the communication skills. It is a recent technology in distributing multimedia files-audio and video files-over the internet. The term is a combination of two words related to audio: “ i pod” and broadcast or broadcasting. With podcasting the files are automatically downloaded on to the computer of the podcast subscriber. The students can listen to the contents to improve their learning skills. There are varieties of materials in podcast format available on the net. The listening materials can be converted, recorded, played on audio cassettes.
Developing Internet – Safe Lesson:
- Don’t direct the entire class to the same site at the same time.
- Try to preview sites.
- Do not ask students to surf.
- Ask students to find specific information.
- Ask students to write URL’s of the sites in bibliography format.
8.USE OF ICT FOR TEACHING ENGLISH
ICT stands for Information and Communication Technology. It describes the technologies of communication. It is widely used in education and business. The knowledge of ICT is essential for students as they have easy access to it. They develop their ability to communicate more effectively in English. They can communicate, edit, annotate and arrange text quickly and it has flexibility. ICT can be used to integrate all the four skills of learning i.e., listening, speaking, reading and writing. It enhances interactive teaching and learning styles. It extends students ability to exercise choice, work independently and make connections between their work in English & in other subjects.
ICT helps students to :
- Evaluate their work.
- Review and modify their work.
- To select and interpret information.
- To improve efficiency.
- Be creative and take risks.
- Gain confidence and independence.
- To save, record, edit and adapt their work quickly & efficiently.
- Easy location & read significant parts of the body.
- To locate information quickly, confidently & accurately.
- To communicate with others e.g. via e- mail, online conferencing.
- Catalysts –Computers serve as a catalyst for student’s activity.
- Collaboration–Computer screen allows pupils to do things together in collaboration.
- Creativity – Sound, pictures, animations, video & text can be put together to encourage creativity.
- Complementary Function: Computers seem to work best as tools for teaching & learning when they complement other teaching & learning activity. Many programmes are used. Electronic dictionary can be used.
- Control: Students are asked to write or collect information.
- Competence: Competence is a key concept. The skill of operating.
- Communication: Opportunities are always available in computer for the teacher to communicate with the students in English.
- Guided Writing: It allows more focus on the drafting process.
- Independent or Group work: Software available to spelling, phonics and grammar which can be undertaken individually or in group work.
The following tasks can be assigned to improve their usage of English:
- Assembling Text
- Labelling & Classifying
- Using a word bank
- Writing stories
- Finding Information
- Combining Texts & Graphics
- Preparing TLM
- E – mail
- Writing for different audiences.