“ Any deviation unacceptable to the majority of speakers of every major dialect of the given language is defined as Error.”
“According to Corder, Error Analysis is a clinical approach to the study of the learner’s language.”
Second language learners use incorrect forms to express themselves in that language. It is due to inadequate understanding of the target language rules. When these learners are revealed or their errors, they correct the mistakes. Otherwise they are tend to continue their errors in that target language. A second language learner has to be internalized the rules of the target language. He may know the rules clearly. So, Error analysis compares the learner’s interlanguage code & the target language code.
Errors arise in reception or understanding or production of the target language in spoken or written form.
Error analysis involves,
- Identification of errors
- Description of errors
- Explanation of errors
Explanation of errors, involves a study of the mother tongue interference (i.e. interlingual interference), pedagogical, sociological and psychological factors.
Some of the errors caused by the learners are mentioned below.
- Errors caused by the learner’s inability to recall.
- Errors caused by confusion between formally similar items.
- Errors caused by confusion between related item.
- Errors in the use of Verbs and Tenses.
- Confusion between the simple and the perfect tenses.
- Verbs incorrectly used for number and person.
I Errors caused by confusion between formally similar items.
Similarity between words and morphemes and lack of control over the target language, the learner fails to use correct words.
Example : incident – accident
brought – bought
Some errors occur due to inadequate or insufficient practice.
- Happy fully ( happy / happily)
- Beautician course (beautician’s course)
- People life (people’s life)
II Errors caused by confusion between related items:
Words which belong to the same source or origin or some other common features confuses the learners. The learner knows the stem or root form of a lexical item but fail to apply correct affixes.
- People were enjoy. (were joyful)
- They are celebrated (They celebrate)
III Errors in the use of Verbs and Tenses:
The general rule learning of the target language causes this error.
- They finished the work just now. (have finished)
- She lives in America last year. (lived)
- She always liked sweets. (likes)
IV Confusion between the simple and the perfect tenses:
Confusion between the tense forms causes error among the learners.
- I has completed my work. (have)
- The people has white washed his houses. (have, their)
- We lives. (live)
- I likes apples. (like)
Remedial measures or steps suggested:
- To avoid interference of the mother tongue, Direct method should be followed.
- Non-synonymous contexts are presented to the learners. Language exercises should be followed. Mechanical drilling exercises are avoided.
- The learner must be the focus of teaching. The second language should be the focus of a second language.
- The social function of the target language must be kept in mind while selecting contents.